Chocolates and Confections 2nd edition

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Formula, Theory, and Technique for the Artisan Confectioner Peter P. Greweling, CMB The Culinary Institute of America





John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

This book is printed on acid-free paper. ∞ Photographs © 2013 by Ben Fink Copyright © 2013, 2007 by The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. The Culinary Institute of America President

Dr. Tim Ryan ’77


Mark Erickson ’77

Senior Director, Educational Enterprises

Susan Cussen

Director of Publishing

Nathalie Fischer

Editorial Project Manager

Lisa Lahey ‘00

Editorial Assistants

Shelly Malgee ’08

Erin Jeanne McDowell ’08

Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey Published simultaneously in Canada No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600, or on the web at Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, or online at Evaluation copies are provided to qualified academics and professionals for review purposes only, for use in their courses during the next academic year. These copies are licensed and may not be sold or transferred to a third party. Upon completion of the review period, please return the evaluation copy to Wiley. Return instructions and a free of charge shipping label are available at Outside of the United States, please contact your local representative. Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages. For general information on our other products and services or for technical support, please contact our Customer Care Department within the United States at (800) 762-2974, outside the United States at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. For more information about Wiley products, visit our web site at Cover and interior design by Vertigo Design NYC Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Greweling, Peter P. Chocolates and confections : formula, theory, and technique for the artisan confectioner / Peter P. Greweling ; the Culinary Institute of America. -- 2nd ed. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 978-0-470-42441-4 (cloth) 1. Chocolate candy. 2. Confectionery. I. Culinary Institute of America. II. Title. TX791.G786 2012 664’.153—dc22 2009041248 Printed in China 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1




Confectionery Ingredients and Equipment

2 Cacao and Chocolate 3 Packaging and Storage 4 Fundamental Techniques 5 Cream Ganache 6 Butter Ganache 7 Noncrystalline Confections 8 Crystalline Confections 9 Jellies 10 Aerated Confections 11 Nut Centers 12 Candy Bars


21 39 53












ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This book bears my name, but at no point was I alone in making it a reality. Many individuals and organizations contributed generously to this work, and without each of them, the book in your hands would have been a lesser one. I remain indebted to those who worked with me to create the first edition of this book, and undertaking the second edition has added to the long list of people with whom it has been my pleasure and good fortune to work. The administration, faculty, staff, and students of The Culinary Institute of America all touched and influenced this book. I thank the administration for agreeing to join me in producing what I hope will be an important textbook, professional reference work, and contribution to the field of confectionery. My friend Tom Gumpel deserves special credit for providing me with the impetus to begin work on this book. Without his encouragement, I would never have undertaken the project. Were it not for the ongoing support of Dean Thomas Vaccaro, completing the second edition would have been considerably more arduous. My colleagues in the Baking and Pastry Department supported my efforts, shared their opinions and expertise, and abided the wake of this project for long enough to have earned congressional commendations. In lieu of those, they have my unending gratitude. The staff of the publishing department at The Culinary Institute of America had a great dea l to do with the production of this volume, in particular Lisa Lahey, Maggie Wheeler, Nathalie Fischer, Erin McDowell, and Shelly Malgee. This book would not be anything close to what it is without their talents and hard work. CIA students are a constant source of inspiration, enthusiasm, and creative energy, and so many have contributed in various ways that I could not possibly mention them all. Sune Naude, Karys Washburn, Adam Harvey, and Matt Plaza worked so many nights with me on formula development as to become slightly vampiric. Kelly O’Neil, Samantha Ramirez, Bryan Graham, and Susan Hemphill also played meaningful roles in formulation for the second edition. Many individuals and companies outside of The Culinary Institute of America also made important contributions to bringing this volume to life. The stunning photography of Ben Fink graces the pages of this book; working with Ben is always both a joy and a privilege. For sharing their knowledge and enthusiasm, I thank Mel Warnecke of Warnecke Associates, Mark Heim of Hershey’s, Thalia Hohenthal of Guittard Chocolates, Bob List and the artisans of Hammond’s Candies, Anil Rohira of Albert Uster Imports, and so many others in this small candy world who selflessly share for the betterment of all. For their help in providing equipment for this project, I thank the Waring Company, Ohaus Scales, Jack Marshall of Pastry Chef Central, and Tom Elsinghorst and Brian Donaghy of Tomric Plastics. And, as always, I thank my wife, Kyra Greweling, for listening to countless hours of confectionery geek-speak during the creation of this book and for supporting me throughout this and all of my endeavors.



INTRODUCTION The history of American confections follows a route parallel to that of many other traditional foods: born of artisans, adopted by regional producers, and captured by manufacturers. With each step in this process, the products tend to lose a little bit of their identity, becoming less unique, less diverse, more anonymous, and further removed from their artisan and geographic roots. Up until the early twentieth century, artisan foods were made by skilled craftspeople in small family-owned businesses in every town and village, with the trade handed down from generation to generation or learned through apprenticeship. Bread bakers, brewers, cheese makers, and, of course, confectioners produced relatively small quantities of fresh, unique products for their customers, who were also their neighbors. This is the tradition of artisan confectionery. Improvements in automation and transportation led to the rise of regional confectioners who prepared unique specialties in larger quantities with the aid of machinery and who distributed their products throughout a larger area than local artisan confectioners could supply. However, these regional confectioners still made candy that was traditional to the location and distributed it within that area, thereby contributing to the food culture of the region. Some examples of these products are pralines in the southern United States, sponge candy in western New York State, fudge throughout the Midwest, taffy at the seashore, buckeyes in Ohio, and maple candies in New England. Further advances in automation, along with improved systems for distribution and the natural progression of capitalism, led to the rise of a few corporate producers, who today manufacture and distribute the vast majority of the candies consumed in America. Most of their products were artisan confections that were altered so that the manufacturers could produce thousands of pounds of them per hour for national or global distribution. Massproduced confections are made using ingredients designed to provide a minimum shelf life of six months and to save the few cents that equate to profit when millions of units are produced. Due to their sheer size and economic advantage, these corporations have led to the near demise not only of the local artisan confectioner and his or her unique products but also of the regional confectioner. Although manufacturers are able to produce confections with great uniformity and economy of scale, the artisan aspect of handmade confectionery using ingredients of the highest quality has nearly been lost. In recent years, however, a segment of the American market has grown weary of manufactured food products that are more about shelf stability and inexpensive ingredients than quality, flavor, and freshness. The revolution that has occurred in bread baking is a prime example of the backlash against manufactured food and the return to traditional ingredients and techniques. Similar revolutions are under way in brewing, cheese making, winemaking, and farming, to name only a few areas of the American culinary landscape. Chocolate and candy making stand today where bread baking stood twenty years ago: poised for a renaissance in status and public awareness and ready for a revival in the use of traditional techniques to produce world-class products. Artisan confections will never replace mass-produced candies in the marketplace, nor should they. Instead they will remain a niche market for those who are passionate about freshness, quality, and flavor. It is my hope that this book will fuel the artisan confectionery revolution by helping people who share this passion to understand and create confections that truly provide a feast for all the senses: the sight of perfectly tempered chocolate or beautifully striped handmade hard candies; the scent of chocolate, freshly roasted nuts, and caramel; the feel of chocolate melting in the mouth; the sound of crisp toffee cracking; and, of course, the taste of freshly made confections created with the best-quality natural ingredients. Vive la revolution!



About the formulas All of the formulas in this book are presented using three units of measure: metric, U.S., and percentage of the whole, uncooked batch. I have chosen metric for the primary units of measure for several solid reasons: grams allow for great ease of use; there is no need for fractions of ounces or conversion to and from pounds, as occurs when U.S. measurements are used. Also, being a smaller unit of measure, grams have a greater level of inherent accuracy. Most users of this book already work with digital scales that easily read either metric or U.S. measurements, so new equipment is not required. Finally, the United States remains the only country on the globe that has not embraced the simpler, more logical metric system; I believe that the change is long overdue. For those who prefer them, U.S. units of measure are provided along with the metric. Regardless of the unit of measure chosen, the quality of the results from these formulas will be the same. Percentages are provided primarily for those wishing to greatly increase or decrease the yields of the formulas and for those who want to make changes in the formulas in order to slightly alter the results or to compensate for ingredient substitutions. I have opted to represent percentages of the total, uncooked batch. Remember that in confectionery the weight of the uncooked ingredients is often vastly higher than the yield of the cooked batch, as a result of the removal of water during cooking. Classic flavor profiles dominate the formulas in this book. The formulas recognize global influences and modern taste preferences but do not bow to fads, which are likely to be shortlived. By using the information on formulation and methods in each chapter, users can successfully create their own flavor profiles to meet the needs of their markets. I have eschewed the use of nonfood additives in the formulas. Lecithin, sorbitol, glycerin, and other additives are not uncommon ingredients in confectionery, and although they are not intrinsically detrimental, I have formulated the products in this book without them. Even the use of colors and manufactured flavors has been limited to confections such as hard candy, where such additives are traditional and nearly essential. The yields given for the formulas are likely to be appropriate for use in a restaurant, hotel, catering operation, or small confectionery shop. However, the formulas can easily be scaled up or down by using the percentages given, whether the desired outcome is a few dozen pieces or dozens of pounds. The dark chocolate used in the formulas is 64 percent cacao with 38 percent cocoa butter content. The milk chocolate is 38 percent cacao, 24 percent cocoa butter, and 38 percent total fat. The white chocolate is 30 percent cocoa butter and 35 percent total fat. The heavy cream used is 40 percent butterfat. While it is not mandatory to follow precisely these specifications, results may vary, and some formulas may require adjustment when vastly different ingredients are used. Such adjustments can be made successfully by reading and understanding the discussions of ingredient functions in each chapter. The sugar-cooking temperatures given are for sea level; adjustments will be required for formulas cooked at altitude.

About the theory A long-standing tradition among craftspeople who have learned their trade through apprenticeship or trial and error is knowing exactly how to do a job, but not necessarily knowing exactly why it is done as it is. Many extremely skilled workers fall into this category. The theory presented in this book is an attempt to help confectioners understand more about how confections work so that when conditions or ingredients change, they can adapt, and when the



results are not as expected, they can create new formulas or adjust existing ones. The confectionery theory provided in this book is written for nonscientists, and is presented in an approachable fashion. There is nothing about confectionery that cannot be easily understood by the average person with an interest in the subject. Virtually all of confectionery is governed by three basic concepts: (1) understanding and controlling the crystallization of sugars and fats, (2) manipulating water content, and (3) creating stable emulsions. Whether the confectioner is mass-producing thousands of pounds of candy bars in an automated facility or producing a few dozen truffles by hand, these are the vital concepts that apply.

About the techniques The majority of the techniques represented in this book are traditional for the confections in which they are used. In a few cases, I have applied theory and altered the technique for the sake of quality, efficiency, or both. Each technique is followed by the theory behind it, which is essentially an explanation of why each step in the technique is important and what the avoidable pitfalls are. Excellence in artisan confectionery rests in the triumvirate of formulas, theory, and techniques; any confectioner needs knowledge in all of these areas to be consistently successful. I trust that the information in this book will supply a sound foundation in these three foundations for anyone who cares to use it, regardless of his or her experience or goals.

A word about conversions All measurements in this book are presented in both metric and U.S. measurements, with the metric units displayed first. All units of measure have been rounded off to a degree that is appropriate for the confectioner using them under that circumstance. For instance, in most formulas the confectioner would not need to scale heavy cream or sugar to a quarter-of-an-ounce measurement but would use single-ounce increments; so when converting from grams to ounces, the units are generally rounded to the nearest ounce. Only when the amount of an ingredient is extremely crucial, as with baking soda or spices, is the ounce measurement given with greater accuracy. Because of this rounding off, the yields of the metric formulas will naturally differ slightly from the yields of the formulas in U.S. measurements. Either version of the formulas can be used to make the confections, with only a slight (less than 10 percent) difference in yield. Temperatures and linear measurements too have been rounded off to a logical standard of accuracy. When the temperature is critical, as in tempering and working with chocolate, temperature conversions are made to the nearest degree Fahrenheit. When the temperature is a guideline, and not truly critical, as when cooling fudge on a marble, it is more logical to convert to a rounded number that a confectioner would normally use. In this scenario, it makes more sense to refer to 50°C as 120°F because it is not a highly critical measurement. Millimeters provide a high degree of precision when describing linear measurements. In most U.S. measurements, units are in sixteenths, eighths, quarters, or halves of an inch. That standard has been honored here, even where it may not precisely concur with the metric measurement from which it is being converted. The percentages listed in the formulas are percentages of the total batch prior to cooking. These too have been rounded off to the nearest percentage point. Some ingredients are significantly less than one percent of the total batch and are simply listed as “
Chocolates and Confections 2nd edition

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