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POLITICAL THOUGHT OF ROMAN DMOWSKI AND JÓZEF PIŁSUDSKI Tomasz Jacyna II SSP 300471 Sources: -”Leksykon myślicieli politycznych i prawnych” 3 wydanie- redakcja Elżbiety Kundery i Marka Maciejewskiego -„Historia ustroju i prawa polskiego”- Zbigniew Jerzy Hirsz -"Studia nad autorytaryzmem i totalitaryzmem 37,nr 2”- Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego - „Z dziejów drugiej Rzeczypospolitej”- Olgierd Terlecki - some definitions and informations partly taken from wikipedia.com, as a help to comment some ideologies or historical operations (selected with „ aaa”), because of the problem with finding informations in some spheras Poland was under partitions for 123 years. After the first world war, the state has been reborn with the help of outstanding people. Many of them had their own ideas for this new country. Main representatives of political ideas in polish politics were Roman Dmowski and Joseph Pilsudski- the first one was nationalist, a main co-founder of National Democracy , second one- socialist (at least in years 1893 to 1903, after that he chose more patriotic ideologies). Both of them fight for independent country, both of them in completely different path. Politician and statesman, marschal and head of Poland, one of the leader Polish Socialist Party. In 1906 participated in Vienna in IX Convention PPS, where was created PPS Revolutionary Fraction, which he became undisputed leader. In years 1910-1914 he created Shooting Associations and Provisional Commission of Confederated Independence Parties. Creator of the POW (Polish Military Organisation). His main political thought was independence of Poland, and throught the democratic reforms, introduction of socialism. Through life and political experience, he became an authoritarian, which throw away socialistic ideas and became true leader of the country from 1926 to 1933). Joseph Pilsudski was a hard to describe character, which acted more than it described the goals of its activities. He was a men of action. He always tried to affect to the society and polish politics „through deeds”. We can see it in early years of his activity, when he believed in socialist idea- ideas of french revolution and russian extreme leftists (he believed in them before first world war). We can notice them in his actions, for example, when he carried out an assasination attempt on the Tsar or attempt at meetings with radical leftists from „Narodnaja Wola” in Charków. But still, he didn't use the main program of their party- using the idea of terror on society. He used those ideas to fight for independence of the country. So how he managed to create his own path and ideology? Under cultural influence and early education, the future leader of the country, connected ideas of socialism with ideological independence of the country, but it was really weak connection. He also didn't learn about ideas of democracy despite the fact that he read a lot in his life (he was even on medical studies). As mentioned earlier in this work, he was a man of action. When the first world war started, he was a consistent supporter of creating an army, polish army, more based on Central Powers, because of his hate to Russian Tsarism and russian culture. In 1908, he create „Association for Active Struggle”.In 1912 Piłsudski (using the nom de guerre, "Mieczysław") became commander-in-chief of a Riflemen's Association (Związek Strzelecki) that grew by 1914 to 12,000 men. In 1914, Piłsudski declared, "Only the sword now carries any weight in the balance for the destiny of a nation." For Pilsudski, austrian politics and cultural circle was more accteptable (but still negative, of course), because of their less anti-polonism. We can see here already his evolution
in his ideas and work. From the socialist activist, who used acts of terror on representatives of the partitioning state to a man of state, the creator of army and military commander. It's also important to mention his concept called „federation concept” or, in other word „Międzymorze” („Intermarium”). In this conception, Joseph Piłsudski wanted to create alliance of independent states. In his opinion, it would be an „antidote” to Soviet Union, which wanted to carry revolution through the world, with violence. It didn't work out, because of the many political and ethnical problems, for example with Lithuania and polish interference in their borders (uprising of Żeligowski) or Ukrainians (failure to fulfill Petrula's promise and emphasis on Ukrainian society). „Intermarium (Polish: Międzymorze, Polish pronunciation: [mʲɛnddzɨˈmɔʐɛ]; Ukrainian: Міжмор'я, Belarusian: Міжмор’е) was a geopolitical project conceived by politicians in successor states of the former Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in several iterations, some of which anticipated the inclusion as well of other, neighboring states. The proposed multinational polity would have extended across territories lying between the Baltic and Black Seas, hence the Latinate name Intermarium, meaning "Between-Seas". Prospectively a federation of Central and Eastern European countries, the post-World War I Intermarium plan pursued by Polish leader and former political prisoner of the Russian Empire, Józef Piłsudski (1867–1935), sought to recruit to the proposed federation the Baltic states (Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia), Finland, Belarus, Ukraine, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia. The Polish name Międzymorze (from między, "between"; and morze, "sea"), meaning "Between-Seas", was rendered into Latin as "Intermarium."”- (from page wikipedia.pl) Because of those problems, which were created by his foreign policy of, this political idea, year after year, was more impossible to put into practice. After his death, „Sanacja” regime applied more tough policy against ukrainian minorities, which led to hatred against the Polish nation. After the war, he became the head of state from 1919 to 1922. He quit the politics due to lack of support, but he came back in 1926, in big and controversial style. Due to political changes in europe and economical problems, he couldn't believe in ideas of democracy. He was against it. He believed that in our political system, the president has too little power, and Sejm can't do their work right- he flamed (in interviews) the politicians in our parliament for failures and frequent changes in Sejm. He began to transform into an authoritarian really fast. When the Chjeno-Piast (coalition of Polish political parties formed in 1923. It included the Polish People's Party "Piast" and an older coalition Christian Association of National Unity) coalition, which Piłsudski had strongly criticized, formed a new government, on 12–14 May 1926, Piłsudski returned to power in a coup d'état (the May Coup), supported by the Polish Socialist Party, Liberation, the Peasant Party and even the Polish Communist Party. Piłsudski had hoped for a bloodless coup, but the government had refused to back down; 215 soldiers and 164 civilians had been killed, and over 900 persons had been wounded. After he took the power with force, he created Non-partisan Bloc for Cooperation with the Government (BBWR), which started the Sanation regime in the country (1926-1939). The powers of the Sejm were curtailed by constitutional amendments that were introduced soon after the coup, on 2 August 1926. From 1926 to 1930, Piłsudski relied chiefly on propaganda to weaken the influence of opposition leaders. In Joseph Piłsudski opnion, he fought against demoralized politicians, „sejmokracja”(having no real impact on the policy because of the no majority in Sejm) - non-functioning constitution and „partyjniactwo” (which means that politicians thought and fought for only about their own and
political party goods). Country needed his help and healing (that's why it was called Sanation regime-from „Sanatio” in latin- healing), as fast as possible. He changed constitution, the president now had the greatest power and was „responsible only to God and history”. Joseph and his supporters had right. Country was in bad shape and it needed well- working government in such hard times like that. „The culmination of his authoritarian came in the 1930s, with the imprisonment and trial of certain political opponents on the eve of the 1930 legislative elections and with the 1934 establishment of a prison for political prisoners at Bereza Kartuska (today Biaroza), where some prisoners were brutally mistreated. After the BBWR's 1930 victory, Piłsudski left most internal matters in the hands of his "colonels" while he concentrated on military and foreign affairs. He came under considerable criticism for his treatment of political opponents and their 1930 arrest and imprisonment was internationally condemned and damaged Poland's reputation.” Roman Dmowski was a politician and political writer, one of the main founder, leader and ideologist Nationalist Democracy („ND”- „Endecja”- „Narodowa Demokracja”). His political activity began after graduation, joining to „Zeta”. In 1893 he founded (with Z. Balicki and J.L. Popławski) National League (Liga Narodowa)- operating in all occupied territories secret organisation. In 1907 he became deputy II and III State Duma, where he served as chairman in Polish Club to 1909. In 1917-1919 president of Polish National Comittee. In 1919 delegate national government in peace conference, which was in Paris. Creator of Great Poland Camp („Obóz Wielkiej Polski”- OBW), which was political alliance against Joseph Pilsudski. His main concept in the system of view was nation understood as community of culture, language, religious beliefs, tradition in terms of generational continuity. He assumed that it was a permanent being, constantly developing and having its own soul. The nation is one, regardless of borders and have only one objective, national objective. He claimed that in comprehended in a modern way patriotism (that is nationalism), attitude of the individual to the nation is based on „close relationship of the individual with his society, to treat all his affairs and interests as his own”. He believed that Poland shouldn't fight with the help of uprising for freedom. In his opinion, on the start Poland should fight for broad autonomy in Polish Kingdom, after that, in the result of universal war Poland should unite all her territories with help of Tsarist Russia. In the Final Stage Poland should got back her independence (peaceful way, prorussian). Because of chosing this way fighting for freedom, Roman Dmowski was against independence uprising. In his opinion, the most aggresive and dangerous enemy was Germany, which, in his opinion, always wanted to destroy polish nation and polish culture. He wanted to introduce parliamentary republic system in Poland. He was against socialism and parlamentarism. In his opinion, Poland should create her own country on territories occupied only by polish people. One of the greatest man, which strongly impact to polish ideology and understanding of nowadays partiotism and nationalism. His books „Myśli Nowoczesnego Polaka i Niemcy”, „Rosja i kwestia polska”, where he described, how polish people, as a nation, should work and against which they should oppose. In first one, he presented the social and political assumptions of the national movement. In his opinion, the epoch of polish gentry and rich aristocracy ended a long time ago. Now, even the poor, working class need to fight for their nation and country. He tried to convince the people of work that they should abandon and even fight against socialism, which destroy tradition and culture of nation. In second one, he tried to convice the reader, that in incoming war polish nation should stay with russians, to fight against Germany and german nationalism (which, in his opinion, was to aggresive and too much dangerous, more than russification).
In his opinion, federalist idea was the worst way to reborn a country. Only a country consisting of one nationality can work well. In his idea, Poland should incorporate only this territories, where mainly lives Poles (even here we can feel his ideology of one nation, with one purpose, which i described in advance). We can also notice here his another believes in ideology, which are not quite good, and which why he was called anti-Semite. Roman Dmowski believed in „social darwinism” from which we can learn that only the strongest nation will survive, in fighting with other nations (in his opinion, our neighbors- Soviet Russia, Germany, Austria and even minorities). He is called one of the biggest polish anti-Semite, but it's not entirely true. He was against jewish nationalism on polish territories. For country, which has not existed for more than 120 years, every minority, was a suspicious and dangerous for reason of state. „Dmowski often communicated his belief in a "international Jewish conspiracy" aimed against Poland. In his essay "Żydzi wobec wojny" (Jews on the War) written about World War I, as Adolf Hitler did in Mein Kampf, Dmowski claimed that Zionism was only a cloak to disguise the Jewish ambition to rule the world. Dmowski asserted that once a Jewish state was established in Palestine, it would form "the operational basis for action throughout the world". In the same essay, Dmowski accused the Jews of being Poland's most dangerous enemy and of working hand in hand with the Germans to dismember Poland again. Dmowski believed that the 3,000,000 Polish Jews were far too numerous to be absorbed, and assimilated into the Polish Catholic culture." The problem is that, he was a bit right about jewish people (and not only) there. A lot of people believed in socialism and communism. In years 1918-1920, we can read a lot from polish commanders about „attacking from behind” polish forces by people from Belarus, Ukraine, and also- Jews. Supposedly, in those times, Jews had enough of being hated as nation or for their believes. Communism, comming from the east had in his programms equality and no hate for all nations, that's why they tried to join red army and fight for new ideology in those days (one of the theories). But also, as we can read in history of Poland, a lot of polish jews fought for Poland in first and second world war. They brought a lot creations into our culture (for example, Bruno Schulz and his book „Sklepy cynamonowe”). In my opinion, both of those man made great job for Poland in 20 century. Without Romand Dmowski, we would have problems on international area (he was fighthing for our independence on political level in Paris). He was a great politician and publicist, with some few dark pages (antiminority). Joseph Pilsudski fought for our country on polish territories, created our army under the suspicious eye of the opponent and lead Poland to victory (with help of Tadeusz Rozwadowski) against Soviet Russia forces in 1920. Also, like Roman Dmowski, had a dark page in his life (creating political prison for opposition in Bereza Kartuska). Both of them had other paths, they hated each other. But we can be sure, that both of those statesman, create amazing and new way of vision for polish politics, which has been affecting to this day.